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英语语法:主动语态与被动语态的转换规则

发布时间:2019-10-27 10:32:00源自:互联网作者:admin阅读()

【导语】英语中的语态体系浩如烟海,里面学问很大,掌握语态的用法对学习英语有很大的意义。今天,初中英语辅导网为同学们带来了相当丰富的与被动语态的用法相关的语法,一起来看看吧!




一、主动语态和被动语态概说

英语的语态分主动语态和被动语态,主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,而被动语态则表示主语是动作的承受者。被动语态由“助动词be+过去分词”构成:

Everybody likes him. 大家都喜欢他。 (主动语态)

He is liked by everybody. 他受到大家的喜欢。(被动语态)

二、主动语态变被动语态的方法

1. 主动语态变被动语态的基本方法

将主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语,将主动谓语变为被动谓语(be+过去分词),将主动语态的主语变为by短语(在被动句中用作状语):

He broke the cup. → The cup was broken by him.

【注意】若不强调动词执行者,被动语态中的by短语通常可以省略:

He was born in 1986. 他生于1986年。

What is this flower called? 这种花叫什么花?

2. 双宾动词的被动语态

双宾动词即指带双宾语的动词,它们在变为被动语态时,通常是把间接宾语(指人)变为被动语态的主语,而把直接宾语(指事物)保留下来(称为保留宾语):

He answered me that question. → I was answered that question by him.

有的动词则通常把直接宾语(指事物)变为被动语态的主语,而把间接宾语改为介词to 或for引起的状语(到底用to还是for,与所搭配的动词有关):

He wrote her a letter. → A letter was written to her. (与动词write搭配用介词to)

She made him a new coat. → A new coat was made for him. (与动词make搭配用介词for)

有时以上两种方式均可用:

He gave her some money. 他给她一些钱。

→ She was given some money. / Some money was given to him.

He bought her a watch. 他给她买了一块表。

→ A watch was bought for her. / She was bought a watch.

3. 被动语态的时态

被动语态的时态由被动结构“be+过去分词”中的动词be来体现,其基本结构和用法如下:

★(1) 一般现在时的被动语态:am [is, are]+过去分词

English is taught in our school. 我们学校学英语。

We are taken good care of at school. 我们在学校受到很好的照顾。

★(2) 一般过去时的被动语态:was [were]+过去分词

He was taken to the police station. 他被带到了警察局。

The house was built ten years ago. 这座房子是10年前建的。

★(3) 一般将来时的被动语态:will be+过去分词

A new building will be built here soon. 不久这里将建一栋新楼。

The meeting will be held at two this afternoon. 会议将于今天下午2点举行。

(4) 现在完成时的被动语态:have [has]been+过去分词

All the work has been done now. 所有的工作现在都做好了。

Have the letters been posted? 信都寄了吗?

(5) 过去完成时的被动语态:had been+过去分词

He said the work had been finished. 他说工作已完成了。

(6) 现在进行时的被动语态:am [is, are] being+过去分词

My watch is being repaired by him. 我的表正在由他修理。

The plan is now being discussed. 计划现在正在讨论。

(7) 过去进行时的被动语态:was [were] being+过去分词

He said that the man was being operated on. 他说那个人正在动手术。

He told me that a new station was being built. 他说正在修建一个新车站。

(8) 过去将来时的被动语态:would be+过去分词

He said that the meeting would be held next week. 他说会议将于下周举于。

★4. 含有情态动词的被动形式

若主动语态中谓语含有情态动词,在相应的被动语态中通常应保留该情态动词,其结构为“情态动词+be+过去分词”:

Everyone must know this. →This must be known by everyone.

请看以下带情态动词被动句实例:

This can’t be done in a short time. 这不是短期内可以完成的。

Can this be done by machine? 这可以由机器来做吗?

The work must be done at once. 这工作必须马上做了。

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