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句子的倒装(第一章)

发布时间:2019-11-08 10:29:01源自:互联网作者:admin阅读()

一、全部倒装

全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时。常见的结构有:
1) here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首 , 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run 。
There goes the bell.
Then came the chairman.
Here is your letter.
2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。
Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.
Ahead sat an old woman.
注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。
Here he comes. Away they went.

二、部分倒装

部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词 do, does 或 did ,并将其置于主语之前。
句首为否定或半否定的词语,如 no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。
Never have I seen such a performance.
Nowhere will you find the answer to this question.
Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room.
当 Not until 引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。
注意:如否定词不在句首不倒装。
I have never seen such a performance.
The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep.
典型例题  
1) Why can't I smoke here?
At no time___ in the meeting-room
A. is smoking permitted B. smoking is permitted
C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit
答案 A. 这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结构。这些否定词包括 no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until 等。本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.
2) Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.
A. man did know B. man know C. didn't man know D. did man know
答案 D. 看到 Not until… 的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在 C ,D 中选一个。
改写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将 not 提前,后面就不能再用否定了, 否则意思就变了。

三、以否定词开头作部分倒装

如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than
Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.
Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.
No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.
典型例题
No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily.
A. the game began B. has the game begun
C. did the game begin D. had the game begun
答案 D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句 (谓语前置) 。这类表示否定意义的词有 never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及 not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。
注意:只有当 Not only… but also 连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的 Not only… but also 仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。
Not only you but also I am fond of music.


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